However, because dosing was predicated on a defined regimen in the genotype-guided group for the initial 5 days and in the control group for the initial 3 days and did not differ between the groups thereafter, we believe that the clinical treatment of patients was not influenced by treatment assignment. Furthermore, because we were utilizing a target and measurable end stage , we usually do not believe that the outcome assessment was biased. The majority of our patients were of European ethnic background, and we can not generalize our findings to other ethnic groups. Although the same genes determine warfarin dose requirements in different ethnic groups,29 the regularity of the average person gene variants differs,29,30 and algorithms that are specific to ethnic groups shall need to be developed.The authors developed the analysis concept, wrote the protocol, and performed and examined all analyses. The study was conducted relative to the protocol, with amendments to lessen the chance of osteonecrosis of the jaw and to inform both individuals and dental practitioners of this risk. The first writer wrote the initial draft of the manuscript, and all authors were involved in revision and acceptance of the manuscript. Novartis Pharmaceuticals was given an opportunity to touch upon the manuscript, but all decisions on submission of the manuscript for publication had been made by the authors and the trial steering committee.